Instructions to Authors
Authors should submit original articles that have not been submitted elsewhere for publication and are not being
considered by another journal. Papers/manuscripts should be submitted electronically via e-mail in an MS Word format.
Articles/manuscripts must conform to the latest edition of the Harvard referencing style and should strictly not exceed 6,500 words in length, with essays and book reviews not exceeding 2,500 words. Main articles must be accompanied by an abstract of a maximum of 200 (two hundred) words and the biographical information of up to 100 words.
Notes on Style
Authors must be guided by the following style when preparing manuscripts for publication:
Order of Presentation
The electronic submission must come in two (2) files. One should contain the title (topic) of the paper, name(s) of author(s), institutional affiliations and a brief biography of the author(s). The second file should contain just the title (topic), the abstract and the paper (minus the name(s) of the author(s) and their affiliation(s).
Abstract must capture the:
• background indicating the rationale for conducting the study,
• theoretical framework and methodology
• summary of key results/findings or expectations
• There should be about five key words after the abstract.
Figures, tables, graphs, charts and illustrations should be originals and of high resolutions. The caption of each illustration must acknowledge the source and copyright owner. Citations and references must be included in the body of the article and as a separate reference list. All citations and references must follow the rules and guidelines of the Harvard style.
In-text citations should keep to the Harvard format.
Short Quotations: When quoting directly from a work, citation should include name of author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference. Watch out for placement of punctuation at the end of the quotations E.g. 1: According to Jones (1998: 199), ‘Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially, when it was their first time.’ E.g.
2: She stated, ‘Students often had difficulty using APA style,’ (Jones,
1998: 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Long Quotations: Quotations of more than 40 words and above must be indented and follow this example:
Jones’s (1998: 199) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help.
Summary or Paraphrase: Manuscripts that paraphrase an idea from another work, must make reference to the author and year of publication in the in-text reference, it may provide the page number (although it is not required).
E.G. 1: According to Jones (1998), the Harvard style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
E.g. 2: The Harvard style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998: 199)
Citing an Author or Authors
Three Authors: The manuscript must name all authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time the work is cited. Use the word “and” between the author’s names within the text and in the parentheses. E.g. 1: Research by Wegener, Petty and Tom (1994) showed… (Wegener, Petty and Tom, 1994).
Four or more Authors: The manuscript must list the first author in the signal phrase or in parentheses and add et al.
E.g. 1: (Kernis et al., 1993)
However in the reference list all authors must be listed.
The manuscript should have a reference list of all literature cited in the text and should appear at the end of the manuscript. The reference list should begin on a new page separate from
the text of the article. The page should be labeled References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.). It should be double-spaced just like the rest of the texts. The reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each source.
Donkor, D. 2009. From poverty to power: How active citizens can change
Ghana. Accra: Asempa
Four or More Authors
Adjei-Kuffour, M., Exelby, N., Kuschke, J., Daly, R. & Bristow, D.
2006. Getaway’s 1001 places to see before you die. Abuja: Mcmillan.
Section or Chapter in an Edited Book – (Multiple Editors)
Dadzie M., Akanyi , P. & Asante D. 2006. Public speaking: Techniques and approaches. In Advance Communication in Africa: Emerging
approaches. K. Shisana, M. Zungu & D. Peze (Eds.) London: Sage. 89-104.
Journal Article Paginated by Issue
Amoako, B.W. 2009. The impact of information centres on scientific research. Journal of Information Science, 105(9-10):335-342.
Journal Article Paginated by Issue
Kumi, V. & Foli, J. 2010. Use of information and communication technologies by students in Ghana. Journal of Communication, 20, 580-
Manuscripts citing electronic sources must have the following formats:
Author; A. A. 2007. Title of work, Retrieved month day, year. From: URL, etc.
Article in an Internet-only journal
E.g. 1. Fredrickson, B.L. 2000. Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention and Treatment. Retrieved
November 20, 2000. From:
Stand-alone document (no author or date)
If the source document does not have an author or date, the manuscript must begin the citation with the title of the document. After the title, place ‘n.d.’ (no date’) in parenthesis, the date that the document was accessed, and the web address of the source.
E.g. Child abuse in Ghana. n.d. Retrieved May 10, 2002. From:
Authors are encouraged to proofread their manuscripts before submission to the editors.